Osteoporosis results in weak, thinning bones with a higher risk of fracture. It affects all genders but especially women.


Osteoporosis results in weak, thinning bones with a higher risk of fracture. It affects all genders but especially women.

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Key points about osteoporosis

  • Osteoporosis is a disease that causes weak, thinning bones. This leaves the bones at greater risk of breaking. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.
  • Women are 4 times more likely to get osteoporosis than men because of a decrease in estrogen after menopause.
  • Risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, race, body weight, and certain medicines.
  • The goals of managing osteoporosis are to decrease pain, prevent fractures, and minimize further bone loss.
  • For postmenopausal osteoporosis in women, medicines can maintain bone health.
  • Rehab programs can help regain bone health.

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes weak, thinning bones. This puts the bones at greater risk of breaking. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.

What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?

People with osteoporosis may not have any symptoms. Some may have pain in their bones and muscles, particularly in their back. Sometimes a collapsed vertebra may cause severe pain, decrease in height, or spinal deformity.

The symptoms of osteoporosis may look like other bone disorders or health problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

When should I contact my doctor?

Seek care immediately if:

  • You believe you've fractured your hip. Hip fractures require surgery within 24 hours, and signs may include pain in your hip or knee, low back pain, the inability to stand or walk, bruising or swelling, or a foot turned out at an odd angle, making your leg look shorter.
  • You have sudden numbness in your arms or legs with severe back pain.

Call your doctor if:

  • You’re experiencing bone or muscle pain, especially in your back, that impacts your ability to take part in daily activities.

How to make an appointment

If you have symptoms of osteoporosis, schedule an appointment with a primary care physician. Once you receive a diagnosis, you may be referred to a specialist, such as a:

They can help you determine the extent of your osteoporosis, discuss your symptoms and figure out the best course of care.

If you choose “BOOK PRIMARY CARE ONLINE,” select “Family Medicine” or “Internal Medicine” to make an appointment with a primary care provider.

Osteoporosis care at UW Medicine

Seeking osteoporosis care at UW Medicine means working with physicians who are well prepared to help you with your unique needs. We also believe that each patient should be treated as an individual rather than receiving a one-size-fits-all plan. If you think you have osteoporosis, you may start with your primary care physician who can help you with the initial screening and offer treatment options. Your doctor can refer you to a specialist in endocrinology, geriatrics and rheumatology to treat you and determine the best path forward from bone fractures or complications. We also have a Strong Bones Clinic at Northwest Outpatient Medical Center.


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What causes osteoporosis?

Researchers don't know the exact cause for osteoporosis. But a number of factors contribute to the disease.

Who is at risk for osteoporosis?

Women are 4 times more likely to get osteoporosis than men. Here are other things that may put you at risk for osteoporosis:

  1. Older age. Bones become less dense and weaker with age.
  2. Race. White and Asian women are most at risk. But all races may get the disease.
  3. Body weight. People who weigh less and have less muscle are more at risk for this condition.
  4. Lifestyle factors. Lack of physical activity, caffeine, heavy alcohol use, smoking, dietary calcium, and vitamin D deficiency may all increase your risk.
  5. Certain medicines. Some medicines may increase your risk.
  6. Family history. Having a family history of bone disease may increase your risk.

Having low bone mass (osteopenia) also puts you at a greater risk for osteoporosis. Low estrogen is one of the main causes of bone loss in women during and after menopause. Women may lose up to 20% of their bone mass in the 5 to 7 years after menopause.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will review your personal and family health history and do a physical exam. Other tests include:

  • Bone density test (bone densitometry). This test measures the mass of bone and its volume to find the risk of getting osteoporosis.
  • Blood tests. These tests measure calcium and potassium levels.
  • FRAX score. This is a score given to estimate the risk of a fracture within 10 years. The score uses the results of a bone density test as well as other things.
  • X-rays. This test uses energy beams to make images of tissues, bones, and organs on film.

Women are encouraged to:

  • Review lifestyle practices with their healthcare provider regularly.
  • Have their personal risk for falls checked at least once a year after menopause.
  • Have their height and weight checked yearly.
  • Get checked for the development of a rounded humped in the spine and back pain (kyphosis).

How is osteoporosis treated?

Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. The goals of managing osteoporosis are to:

  • Decrease pain
  • Prevent fractures
  • Minimize further bone loss

Some of the ways to treat osteoporosis are also ways to prevent it. They include:

  • Staying at a healthy body weight
  • Doing more walking and other weight-bearing exercises
  • Limiting caffeine and alcohol
  • Stopping smoking
  • Getting enough calcium and vitamin D through diet and supplements
  • Installing hand railings, or assistive devices in the bathroom or shower to prevent falls
  • Asking your healthcare provider about medicines that may help

These medicines help maintain bone health in women with osteoporosis at menopause:

  • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT).  ERT reduces bone loss, increases bone density, and reduces the risk for hip and spinal fractures in postmenopausal women. But talk with your healthcare provider before taking them. Research found several important health risks linked to this therapy. For many women, the risks of ERT outweigh the benefits.
  • Bisphosphonates. These medicines reduce bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce the risk for fractures.
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS).  These medicines help prevent bone loss.
  • Parathyroid hormone. This medicine is a form of parathyroid hormone. It helps form bone.
  • Monoclonal antibody. This medicine is given by shot (injection) under the skin. It’s approved for women with osteoporosis at high risk for fractures. It’s also used for women who are being treated with cancer medicines that can weaken bones.

Living with osteoporosis

An osteoporosis rehab program can be vital to a full recovery. It can help you obtain the best possible bone health and quality of life. The focus of rehab is to decrease pain, help prevent fractures, and minimize further bone loss. To help reach these goals, programs may include:

  • Exercise programs and conditioning to increase weight-bearing and physical fitness
  • Methods to manage your pain
  • Nutritional counseling to improve how much calcium and vitamin D you get and to limit caffeine and alcohol
  • Assistive devices to make you safer at home
  • Education, especially on ways to prevent falls

These rehab programs can be done as an outpatient or inpatient. Many skilled people are part of the team. They include:

  • Dietitian
  • Internist
  • Occupational therapist
  • Orthopedist/orthopedic surgeon
  • Physiatrist
  • Physical therapist
  • Psychologist/psychiatrist
  • Recreational therapist
  • Rehabilitation nurse
  • Social worker
  • Vocational therapist

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